Aina za Tathmini katika Ufundishaji


Aina za Tathmini katika Ufundishaji na Ujifunzaji

Tathmini Awali – ni tathmini inayomwezesha mwalimu kuelewa mahali mwanafunzi anapostahili kuanzia katika kujifunza. Mwalimu huwauliza maswali wanafunzi na wanafunzi hujibu kwa mdomo au kwa kuandika.

Tathmini Endelevu – ni tathmini inayomsaidia mwalimu kuona kama mwanafunzi amemudu kipengele cha somo kabla kipengele kitakachofuata kufundishwa.

Tathmini Tamati – Ni tathmini inayosaidia kujua kama mwanafunzi amepata maarfa, stadi na mielekeo katika Nyanja zote za kielimu kama ilivyoorodheshwa katika muhtasari wa somo la Haiba na Michezo. Tathmini hii hufanyika mwishoni mwa kipindi cha mafunzo au baada ya mwanafunzi kumaliza ngazi Fulani ya elimu.

Tathmini Tatuzi – Ni tathmini inayomsaidia mwalimu kugundua mwanafunzi mwenye matatizo ya kujifunza yaliyoshindikana kutatuliwa na tathmini endelevu.. Mwalimu hutafuta kujua matatizo ya kujifunza aliyonayo mwanafunzi na hufanya kazi ya kumtatulia matatizo hayo mwanafunzi.


Author: Sir Gunda

A Friend of Education

8 thoughts on “Aina za Tathmini katika Ufundishaji

    1. Writing References – Oxford System

      Books with one Author

      Include (if available): author’s last name and first name; title; edition (if not 1st); place of publication and publisher, year of publication.


      Bryman, Alan. Social research methods. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford university press, 2008.

      Books with two or more Authors

      Fabozzi, Frank J., Modigliani, Franco and Jones, Frank J. Foundations of financial markets and institutions. 4th ed. Boston: Prentice Hall, 2010.

      Books which are Edited (Anthologies)

      For edited books include editor(s) in brackets after the name of the editor(s)


      Allen, Jeffner and Young, Iris Marion (eds.). The thinking muse: feminism and modern French philosophy. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989.


      The same information should be provided as for printed books, see examples above. For books that have been read or downloaded from a library website or bookshop you should add information about e-book at the end of the reference.

      Bowen, Natasha K. & Guo, Shenyang. Structural equation modeling. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012. E-book.

      Some books whose copyright have expired are sometimes freely available on the internet. In those cases you should add the complete URL (http ://….) and access date, the date you downloaded/read the book.

      If the URL is very long it could be sufficient to use the URL of the web site where you found the book e.g.
      Smith, Daniel. Memory of a tree festival. Hamburg: Sommer Publishing, 1902. http://www.treesandplantsmemoriesinsummer (Accessed 2012-05-21).

      Strindberg, August. Three plays: countess Julie; the Outlaw; the Stronger. Boston: International pocket library, 1912. (Accessed 2012-05-21).

      Book Chapters

      Include (if available): family name(s) and first name(s) of author(s) of book chapter; title of book chapter; In, title of book; first and family name(s) of editor(s) and ed(s) in brackets; edition (if not 1:st); page numbers of chapter; place of publication and publisher; year of publication


      Ellet, Elizabeth F.L. By rail and stage to Galena. In Prairie state: impressions of Illinois, 1673-1967, by travelers and other observers, Paul M. Angle (ed.), 271-79. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968.

      Journal Articles

      Include (if available): family name(s) and first name(s) of author(s); title of article; journal name; volume and issue; year of publication ; page numbers of article

      Lundmark, Linda. Economic Restructuring into Tourism in the Swedish Mountain Range. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism 5, no. 1 (2005): 23–45.

      Graham, Elspeth and Boyle, Paul. Editorial introduction:(re)theorising population geography: mapping the unfamiliar. International Journal of Population Geography 7, no. 6 (2001): 389-394

      Electronic Journal Articles

      Same information included as for journal articles (see example above) and a DOI-number. DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is used to uniquely identify an object such as an electronic article. DOI-numbers are permanent, which makes it possible to easily locate articles even if the URL of the article has changed. Articles are assigned DOI-numbers by major academic publishers. If there is no DOI-number you should give the URL-link of the article and in some cases access date (mainly articles that are freely available on the internet). Today the publisher often states how to write the reference.

      Lundmark, Linda. Economic Restructuring into Tourism in the Swedish Mountain Range. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism 5, no.1 (2005): 23–45. doi: 10.1080/15022250510014273.

      Larsen, James E. and Blair, John P. The importance of police performance as a determinant of satisfaction with police. American Journal of Economics and Business Administration 1, no.1 (2009): 1-10. (Accessed 2010-09-29).

      Newspaper Articles

      Include (if available): author of article; title of article; magazine and date of article

      Jowit, Juliette . Corporate lobbying is blocking food reforms, senior UN official warns. Guardian.10-09-22.

      Newspaper Articles on the Internet

      Same informaton as for a printed article (see above) and URL of article and date of access in brackets.

      If the URL is very long it could be sufficient to use the URL of the newspaper e.g
      Jowit, Juliette . Corporate lobbying is blocking food reforms, senior UN official warns. Guardian. 10-09-22. (Accessed 2010-09-30).

      Web Pages/Internet Sources

      Include (if available): author, organization, authority or company; (year) ; title of document or page; name of web site or owner of web site; last update of web page ; complete URL (http://…..) and date of access.

      Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Health: OECD says governments must fight fat. 2010.,3343,en_21571361_44315115_46064099_1_1_1_1,00.html
      (Accessed 2010-10-10).

      For blogs include title and posting date of individual blog entry:

      Parker, Matt. 2010. The simple truth about statistics. Science blog. 29 September. (Accessed 2010-10-10).


      For articles/entries in online encyclopedias include (if available): author of article, title of article, name of encyclopedia, year of publishing,; complete URL (http://…..) and date of access. If there is no author, use the title of the entry or article first.


      Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Encyclopedia Britannica. 2010. (Accessed 2010-10-30).


      Include information about university of graduation and title of degree.


      Eckerberg, Katarina. Environmental protection in Swedish forestry: a study of the implementation process. PhD diss., Umeå University, 1987.

      Landström, Mats. Two essays on Central Bank independence reforms. Lic. diss., Umeå university, 2009.

      Conference Proceedings

      Lectures/presentations at conferences and seminars are published in anthologies called proceedings. Title, year and city of conference are to be included if known. Individual contributions to conference proceedings are treated as chapters in books. Sometimes those contributions are published in journals and are treated as journal articles.

      Hall, C. Michael. North-south perspectives on tourism, regional development and peripheral areas. In Tourism in peripheries : perspectives from the north and south, Dieter K. Müller and Bruno Jansson (eds.), 19-38. Perspectives on tourism in Nordic and other peripheral areas, 2004, Umeå. Wallingford: CABI, 2007
      Illustrations (photographs, figures, diagrams, tables etc.)

      Illustrations created by others are often protected by copyright. In those cases you need permission from the copyright owner before you can you use the illustrations in your text. If possible always state the creator of the illustration in the reference list. If you use an illustration in your paper include a caption with the following information image number (e.g. Figure 1), title, creator of illustration and year.

      Lennver, Anders. Night against procrastination [Photography]. 2012. (Accessed 2016-04-05).

      State the name of the illustrator if different than the author of the work. If available also provide page number of the illustration:

      Hazel, Edward.. Prague by day [Photography]. In Czech photography in the twenty-first century, S. Johnson (ed.), 32. Prague: Autumn Publishing, 2015.

      If you have viewed an image of a work of art online, you should reference it as an online image, regardless of the original medium. If possible state the name of the artist and the collection:

      Turner, Joseph. The Fighting Temeraire [Oil painting]. 1839. The National Gallery [online]. www. (Accessed 2016-04-05).

      Television Programs

      Lindsjö, Lars. UR Samtiden – Hur kan utåtagerande barn bemötas? [Television]. Stockholm: Sveriges utbildningsradio. 2011.

      Personal Communication

      Personal communication includes more informal sources: e.g. letters, e-mails, phone calls or conversations. Permission should be sought before these sources are quoted, and a copy retained for reference.

      If you have promised an interviewee anonymity you must keep that promise. You will find more information about rules and guidelines for research at CODEX.

      Please note that personal communication is sometimes not included in the reference list as the sources normally are not traceable. In those cases information about personal communication are provided only in the footnotes. Check with your teacher/supervisor if you are uncertain!

      A reference to personal communication should include as much information as possible; name, profession/position, details of personal communication; date


      Svensson, Anna; student at Umeå university. Interview 2010-05-11.
      Informant 1: Grammar school, Umeå . 12 boys and 12 girls, individual interviews 2010-05-09.
      Smith, Veronica; Professor at the department of physics, Umeå University. Northern lights, lecture 2010-03-12.
      Please note that e-mail addresses belonging to individuals should only be provided if the owner has given permission.

      Lee, Oscar. E-mail. 2008-05-13. .


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